Ancient Olynthos

LocationNea Olynthos

The site is inhabited since the Neolithic Age (5300-4500 BC), the word “Olynthos” is pre-Hellenic and means, probably, “wild goats”. According to the tradition, it was named by Olynthos, the son of the river Strymon. Herodotus reports that the city was conquered by the Wothians of Imathia in the seventh century BC,

Its period of acne is in the classical times. He participated in the 1st Athenian Alliance (Deal Alliance) as an active member. In 440 BC (429 BC), Mendi (423 BC) and Siggo (before 422 BC), the city of Athens, which is the capital of the island, is the most populous city in the region, accepting the waves of immigrants from Potidea (429 BC) ) Due to the Peloponnesian War and its consequences in the Halkidiki region. In 432 BC the “Halkidian Community” is founded, an alliance of 32 coastal cities in Chalkidiki, based in Olynthos, a new city built with the Hippodamian system. Because of its increasing power, it collides with Amyntas III of Macedonia (393 – 370 BC). For the same reason, it is also attacked by the Spartans (382 – 379 BC) who besiege it and occupy it temporarily.

During the period of the theban hegemony, Olynthos regains its lost prestige and is again breaking with Athens (368 – 358 BC) for the Amphipolis area. This is what Philip II is trying to take advantage of. At the beginning (356 BC) she offers her as a counter for her friendly attitude to Potidea and the area of ​​Anthimontos. The alliance, however, of Olynthos with Philip will not last long, as it opposes its plans. The city is known for the philistine flames of Demosthenes in Athens, which does not succeed in sending aid. In 348 BC he attacks Philip against the capital of the Halkidian Common and destroys it.

The city of Classical times was structured according to the Hippodamian system, in an area of ​​600X300m, with building blocks separated by horizontal and vertical streets. It is noteworthy that the theater of the city has not been found. The houses had two floors, with an inner courtyard. To the south was the market and to the east the houses of the rich. Among the villas that were excavated are those of Agathis Tychis, the Actor, as well as the Gemini of Questions. In them were found mosaic floors, vases, jewelery and clay figurines. The first archaeological finds came to light in 1928. The most recent excavations took place in the 1990s.

In the archaeological site of ancient Olynthos, the Archaeological Museum has been operating since 1998. The purpose of the museum is to give visitors a complete picture of the history of the ancient city but also to describe the excavations and restoration. All this is done exclusively by audiovisual media.

Olynthos had cut off a coin, and several ancient coins have survived. The silver Phoenician tetradrachm of the 4th c. B.C. depicts Apollo bayonet. The back face bears the inscription [X] AL, KID, EON on the top, right and left edges respectively, and depicts a seven-string form. The coin has a diameter of 24 mm and weighs 14.33 g. Another silver Phoenician tetradrachm of the same period also depicts the bayonet Apollo. The back face bears the inscription HAL, KID, [E] ON at the top, right and left ends respectively, and depicts a seven-string form. The coin has a diameter of 25 mm and weighs 13.13 grams. Another silver Phoenician quadrant of the same era and the same features has a diameter of 14 mm and weighs 2.36 g.